Are you interested in a short history of the city of Maribor and Pohorje`s past?
Short history of the city of Maribor
There, where already in antiquity an important traffic crossroads between Celeia and Falvia Solva originated on one side and Ptuj and Carinthia on the other is today the second largest city in Slovenia, Maribor. A modest site from the Early Stone Age, an urn burial ground, a Celtic site and the Roman villa Rustic bear witness to the oldest traces of settlement in the region of the present-day city.
Markburg - first a market town then a town! The year was 1164, when the Carinthian Duke Bernhard Speinheim had the first stronghold built on the Piramida hill, which was called the Castle in the march or Burg in der Mark. The settlement that grew below the hill was called Markburg.
In the year 1209 the settlement got market rights and in 1254 it was first mentioned as a town. Only a year later the town's people began to build a two kilometre long wall around the town, which set the bounds to the old town core. The wall was then additionally fortified with defence towers. The Judgement tower, Tscheligi tower, Jewish tower and the Water Tower helped to preserve the town even against Turkish invasions and still today reveal many a legend.
In Maribor in the Middle Ages there lived a large and economically very strong Jewish community! They built for those times a large and mighty synagogue, which due to its characteristics was exceptional in the Central European space.
The town, which was built of stone and wood, was neither spared of fire nor plague! At the end of the 17th century the plague killed a fifth of the inhabitants and at this time Maribor got one of the most beautiful cultural monuments in the town, Mary's or Plague column.
Slovene Bishop Anton Martin Slomšek is not only the first Slovene saint but also man who endeavoured to bring about national awakening! With the transfer of the seat of the Lavantine diocese from St Andraž to Maribor in the year 1859 the Church of St John the Baptist became a cathedral.
Construction of the Southern railways from Vienna to Trieste in 1846 brought fast industrial development to the town. Once a small town it began to quickly expand and with the expansion of the town traffic also increased. It became necessary to build new bridges and it was precisely these that trampled the medieval plan of the old part of the town, called Lent. The river Drava was an important traffic artery already in Roman times. Annually 700 small cargo boats called šajks - and 1200 rafts docked at the Lent river port. Beside timber they also transported wine, iron products and textiles all the way from Carinthia (Koroška) to Belgrade and on to the Black Sea. Once a rapid river today it whispers about its important role for the prosperity of the town. Just a few metres from the river is the Old Vine, the oldest grape vine in the world, which after 400 years still bears grapes and as queen of all grape vines is a potent reminder of the past.
Several new countries were set up from the Austro-Hungarian Empire after the First World War. General Rudolf Maister was the Slovene general and poet that outline and defended the today northern border of Slovenia. The stormy years during the First World War had a decisive impact also on the later development of the town. A strong textile industry appeared that continued to grow in the following decades. With the Second World War on the horizon Maribor lived in fear of the coming military power. It was 6th April 1941, when the former Yugoslavia fell under the military fire. All development and also industry was stopped in the town. During the war the town was almost levelled and the consequences was felt decades after the end of the war. After the Second World War Maribor registered leaps and bounds in development. Companies in the period of self-governing socialism employed people mostly according to social criteria and created a new age working class.
With a reduction in jobs in industry Maribor redirects into the accelerated development of tourism and other service activities. The town with 110.000 inhabitants has become the university, economic, cultural, traffic and tourist centre of northeast Slovenia.
Short history of Pohorje
Before approximately fourteen centuries ago our ancestors arrived from the Pannonian lowlands and the north and in front of them saw the mountain chain, which they named with a unique, general name in Slovene toponymics – simply Pohorje.
In historical documents dating from 1230 we can trace the name “supania Pocher”, which is undoubtedly the original topographic meaning of Pohorje.
Pohorje prides itself as being the only magmatic metamorphic mountain chain in Slovenia and appropriately so are its ecological characteristics, relief formation, waters and landscape characteristics. On an impermeable stone foundation it formed in a characteristic relief ridge and heaped peaks and the densest system of surface water in Slovenia. The complex geographical region of Pohorje is diverse with natural heritage. Its exceptionalness and distinctiveness is shown in flat land and peat moors and small lakes, canes in marble and tonalite, tallest Slovene pine trees (Sgermov’s pine tree), remains the primeval forest Šumik, site of magmatic rock (tonalite, chislakite and marble).